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Infant Toddler Development Training
Module 1, Lesson 3

Activity #1

Read Chapter 1 in DEC Recommended Practices in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education by Sandall, McLean, Smith (Eds.) (2000).

The following sections should be read with care:

  • Our Values and Beliefs
    • Respect for all children and families
    • High quality, comprehensive, coordinated, and family-centered services and supports
    • Rights of all children to participate actively and meaningfully within their families and communities
  • Recommended Practices for All Children
  • Age Grouping

NOTE: The Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) is a national, nonprofit organization of individuals who work with or on behalf of children with special needs and their families. The Recommended Practices (updated terminology for Best Practices) which appear in the text you are reading for the ITDS modules are based on a current synthesis of scientific and experiential knowledge. DEC is considered to be a major professional organization from which the ITDS can draw valuable information in the practice of early intervention. As stated in the module Protocols, this book is required reading for ITDS candidates. Information on how to obtain a copy can be found in the Protocols.


Activity #2

  1. Go to the census data to learn some interesting facts about children and families in your home state.
  2. Click on the link for Florida.
  3. Click on the various choices in the window under "VIEW MORE DATA FOR FLORIDA" Key facts, profile, income/poverty, disability status, etc.
  4. Look at the various statistics on our Florida children.
  5. Go to the health care disparities information.
  6. Navigate this website by reading the introduction to health disparities and also clicking on "frequently asked questions" and "health disparity primer - all 5 chapters". Don't let this scare you...the chapters are short!

Keeping in mind the statistics you viewed and the information you read, if you were given the chance to make three wishes come true for the children and their families in the state of Florida, what would your three wishes be? If those wishes came true, how would it affect Florida families? What are some local resources you could use to help promote a better situation for one of the families you have worked with?


Activity #3

In this lesson, the focus was mainly on environmental, genetic, and maternal factors that can affect child development. However, there has been a variety of recent research on paternal factors that may affect prenatal child development. Research the internet and identify three behaviors of a father that are believed to influence prenatal development.

Among other internet resources you may find to be of interest, check out Dads and Birth Defects for this activity.


Activity #4

Reflect on two young children you currently serve or have knowledge of—similar ages but different cultures if possible. What physical skills have you noticed emerging over the past few weeks? Have their likes and dislikes changed recently? How have their vocalizations changed? How has their interest in their surroundings changed? Do you notice any differences in the ways their mothers and fathers interact with them? Do you notice any cultural or even generational differences that might make the parents' interactions different from those of the caregiver? How much influence do you see child rearing practices and culture having on the child's development?


Lesson 3 Highlights

This lesson focused on the various factors that can influence a child's development. Some factors can be prevented, others not. It is important for the ITDS to be knowledgeable of the various factors and how those factors can interfere with typical child development. This lesson focused on prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal conditions and parental influences that can have an affect on a child's maturation and learning abilities.


Berk, L. E. (1999). Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Chandra, R. K. (1991). Interactions between early nutrition and the immune system. In Ciba Foundation Symposium No. 156 (pp. 77-92).

Chavkin, W. (1995). Substance abuse in pregnancy. In B. P. Sachs, R. Beard, E. Papiernik, & C. Russel (Eds.) Reproductive health care for women and babies (pp. 305-321). New York: Oxford University Press.

Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1998a). Perspectives on research and practice in developmental psychology. In I. E. Sigel & K A. Renninger (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Child psychology in practice (5th ed., pp. 479-582). New York: Wiley.

Colburn, N. (1996, September). Fetal alcohol babies face life of problems. Washington Post (p. 5).

Diaz, J. (1997). How drugs influence behavior: A neuro-behavioral approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M. T. (1993). Maternal smoking before and after pregnancy: Behavioral outcomes in middle childhood. Pediatrics, 92, 815-822.

Levine, R. A. (1996). Child care and culture: Lessons from Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McCormick, M. C., Gortmaker, S. L., & Sobol, A. M. (1990).Very low birth weight children: Behavior problems and school difficulty in a national sample. Journal of Pediatrics, 117, 687-693.

Nevin, M. M. (1988). Dormant dangers of DES. The Canadian Nurse, 84, 17-19.

Patteson, D. M., & Barnard, K. E. (1990). Parenting of low birth weight infants: A review of issues and interventions. Infant Mental Health Journal, 11, 37-56.

Putsch, R., SenGupta, I., Sampson, A., & Tervalon, M. (2003, October). Reflections on the CLAS Standards: Best practices, innovations & horizons. Retrieved June 22, 2004.

Sanchez, Y. M. (1997). Families of Mexican origin. In M. K. DeGenova (Ed.), Families in cultural context: Strengths and challenges in diversity (pp. 61-84). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Susser, M., & Stein, Z. (1994). Timing in prenatal nutrition: A reprise of the Dutch Famine Study. Nutritional Reviews, 52, 84-94.

Trawick-Smith, J. (2003). Early childhood development: A multicultural perspective. Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall.

Trawick-Smith, J. (2003). Early childhood development: A multicultural perspective. Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall. Table 18-1 "Cultural universals and variations in parent-child interactions" p. 455.

Wilcox, J., Baird, D. D., & Weinberg, C. R. (1995). Fertility in men exposed to prenatally to diethylstilbestrol. New England Journal of Medicine, 332, 1411-1416.


  • Kids Count main website for Activity #2
  • Key facts for Florida Kids Count for Activity #2
  • Summary Profile for Florida Kids Count for Activity #2
  • Income and Poverty for Florida Kids Count for Activity #2


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